The provided an overview on analysis of nutrient flows, particularly of phosphate, with a comprehensive review of nutrient recovery technologies. An illustration of various case studies of wastewater treatment plants that adopted nutrient recovery methods and comparing the selected onsite nutrient and energy recovery cases was presented. Potential markets that could use products of nutrient recovery were also identified, where the views of industry experts (e.g. fertilizer advisors, organic food producers and green supply chain managers in food retail) were presented, focusing on trends in organic production and in particular on meeting phosphate requirements, as well as acceptance in the food market. The integration of renewable energy sources together with nutrient recovery technologies was also investigated using available literature and knowledge. Furthermore, a Systems Theory approach for water infrastructure and management practices within the Foreshore precinct in Cape Town’s central business district was demonstrated.
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