Fluidised ion exchange (FIX) to improve the source water quality

The application of FIX for the early removal of NOM in water treatment also produces a beneficial effect on the quality of the water produced and on all the subsequent treatment processes.

In this regard, a multi-year pilot study was conducted by the Dutch water company Waternet and KWR.

It demonstrated:

  1. Decreased membrane fouling
  2. Lower ozone use in oxidation processes, and
  3. Shorter contact times and lower regeneration of activated carbon filtration.