The town of Atlantis (South Africa) practices indirect water recycling, of which artificial groundwater recharge forms a major component, for almost 40 years. The Atlantis groundwater scheme provides a cost-effective water supply option in conjunction with strict management controls. The importation of limited quantities of low salinity surface water enhanced the viability of the recharge scheme and also allowed the utilization of slightly more saline groundwater. The introduction of ion-exchange for water softening and partial desalination in 1986 further enhanced the scheme, even allowing the possible export of potable water to other residential areas. Currently, an in-situ iron removal pilot plant is being constructed to deal with iron fouling on the abstraction borehole screens.
- Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (www.csir.co.za)
- Artifical recharge case studies in South Africa
- Bugan, R.D.H. et al., 2016. Four decades of water recycling in Atlantis (Western Cape, South Africa): Past, present and future. Water SA 42(4): 577 - 594. dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v42i4.08