Subsurface Water Solutions

Subsurface Water Solutions (SWS) provide innovative, practical concepts for advanced freshwater management, with the common objective of protecting, enlarging and sustainably utilizing fresh groundwater resources.

SWS build on experiences with Managed Aquifer Recharge and Aquifer Storage and Recovery, but their applicability is much wider due to innovations in water well designs and groundwater modeling and management.

Examples include Freshkeeper to stop and reverse salinisation of aquifers and water wells by intercepting intruding brackish groundwater and ASR Coastal to store freshwater, such as harvested rainwater or reuse water in brackish aquifers and reclaim it unmixed for irrigation purposes. SWS introduce a new thinking of water management and provide practical answers for freshwater challenges faced by farmers, utilities, industry and cities.

Application references

Abu Dhabi – ASR for secure drinking water supply

Abu Dhabi – ASR for secure drinking water supply

Abu Dhabi (EAD) produces its drinking water from desalinated seawater from the Arabian Gulf. In case of emergencies, e.g. when algal blooms prevent the intake of water from the Gulf, this system can supply the city with water for a maximum of …
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Parameters and fluxes in hydrolic systems: bogs and pools as a case study

Parameters and fluxes in hydrolic systems: bogs and pools as a case study

In principle, there are different methods for obtaining estimates of the parameters and fluxes in groundwater systems. The alternatives are field and/or laboratory measurements, groundwater flow models and time series analysis. The advantage of time series models is …
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Schinias – Freshwater for Greek coastal area

Schinias: Freshwater for Greek coastal area

The coastal site of the Schinias Natural Park is situated in the plain of Marathon, a typical Mediterranean environment that hosts important naturally occurring ecosystems (coastal wetlands, sand dunes and a pine forest), but also accommodates greenhouses, requiring high quality water. The multi-layer aquifer system …
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Waddinxveen – subsurface storage of stormwater

Waddinxveen

Demonstration of temporary subsurface storage of stormwater. The Waddinxveen site (NL) is a polder located app.10-15 km NE of Rotterdam. The pilot will be utilised to demonstrate subsurface storage of storm water for later withdrawal and use. The pilot includes innovative pretreatment (a.o. fuzzy filters) and infiltration technologies to enable high …
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Freshkeeper to counteract salinization of water wells

Freshkeeper

Freshkeeper to counteract salinization of water wells. Well field Noardburgum, the Netherlands, was abandoned in 1993 because of salinization of the water wells due to upconing of saline groundwater. The Freshkeeper concept, designed on paper in the 2000s, can provide a solution: intercept and dispose intruding saline groundwater to safeguard freshwater …
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Clean Subsurface Reservoir

Clean Subsurface Reservoir

Recently, Korean Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport launched a R&D project to develop world leading technologies on aquifer storage and recovery. Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), a member of Watershare® program in KWR, is participating in the project with focuses on:the water qualities issues related to …
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Freshmaker – Enlarging, protecting and utilizing freshwater lenses with horizontal wells

Freshmaker

Enlarging, protecting and utilizing freshwater lenses with horizontal wells. The ‘Freshmaker’ uses one horizontal water well for infiltration and abstraction and is complemented by a second deeper, horizontal well. The Freshmaker aims to enlarge an existing thin freshwater lens in times of freshwater surplus, which allows later use in times of …
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Suitability maps for South Holland

Fresh in saline: Suitability maps for South Holland

Greenhouse horticulture in the Province of South Holland already makes use of subsurface water storage in areas with fresh/brackish groundwater in order to address its irrigation water shortages. By adapting the injection and abstraction system, subsurface storage also offers a high-yield (partial) solution …
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Freshkeeper: Safeguard drinking water production from Floridan aquifers

Freshkeeper: Safeguard drinking water production from Floridan aquifers

The Town of Belleair (Pinellas Peninsula, Florida) produces an average 1.1 MGD drinking water from groundwater extracted from the Upper Floridan Aquifer System. The Town is concerned over the future water quality of its well field: seawater intrusion is occurring and has caused steep increases in salinity levels of …
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Maneadero Valley Mexico – Reuse water for agriculture

Sufficient and safe irrigation water in Maneadero Valley, Mexico

Maneadero Valley is a 35 km² coastal alluvial plain in Baja California, Mexico, producing high value crops such as tomatoes and cucumbers for local and export markets. Food production is under pressure because of a shortage of freshwater for irrigation and already 1000 …
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Falster Island counteracting salinization

Falster Island counteracting salinization

The Marielyst area on the southern part of Falster Island is developed partly on land reclaimed in the nineteenth century, mainly for agriculture and recreational purposes (summer housing). The area is facing saltwater intrusion problems both from the sea and fossil marine waters in the deeper part of …
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Groundwater models versus time series Analysis: the Terwisscha Case

Groundwater models versus time series Analysis: the Terwisscha Case

The influence of the groundwater pumping station of Terwisscha (the Netherlands) on the groundwater levels in the area has been investigated at least a dozen times over the years. But the studies came up with widely differing results. The time series analysis systematically …
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Dinteloord

Dinteloord – ASR enables water reuse

Dinteloord – ASR enables water reuse

Dinteloord, the Netherlands, is a 3 km2 greenhouse horticulture area under development, with a predicted high water demand which cannot be fully supplied by precipitation in dry years. To meet the water demands, treated wastewater from a nearby sugar factory (sugar beets) is to be …
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ASR Coastal – irrigation water for greenhouses

ASR Coastal: Temporal storage and unmixed recovery of freshwater in brackish groundwater

ASR Coastal makes it possible to store freshwater (harvested rainwater, reuse water) in a brackish aquifer and to subsequently reclaim it unmixed for irrigation purposes. ASR Coastal uses multiple, individually controlled filter screens to enable deep injection and shallow …
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Holten

Holten

The well field of Holten is located in an area with vulnerable sandy soils. The travel times vary within the capture zone. The abstraction has high nitrate concentrations, mainly due to the agricultural land use (pasture, arable land, and since 1970 maize). The yearly averaged values of nitrate concentrations in the groundwater recharge …
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InSitrate: Mitigating nitrate polluted groundwater resources

InSitrate

Groundwater constitutes one of the main resources of freshwater on our planet, providing useful functions and services to humans and the environment. In many European countries, this resource is increasingly being polluted with nitrate due to anthropogenic activities such as the excessive use of fertilizers in crops, livestock, sewage waste …
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Ecohydrological impact assessment of climate change

Ecohydrological impact assessment of climate change

Results of simulated groundwater levels for different climate scenarios for the Baakse Beek region in the Netherlands were translated into the habitat factors oxygen stress (OS) and drought stress (DS). First, using the specialized software, transfer functions tailored to the region were calculated for the local …
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